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Partial Reference Bibliography


Adams, E. (2002). From Illicit to Equitable: An Evaluation of Decriminalization Models for British Columbia. Retrieved from:


Artaud , A. (1925). Opium Traffic. La Révolution Surréaliste. Retrieved from:

​Beletsky, L., & Davis, C. S. (2017). Today's fentanyl crisis: Prohibition's Iron Law, revisited. The International journal on drug policy, 46, 156–159.

BC Centre for Disease Control. Knowledge Update: Post-mortem detection of hydromorphone among persons identified as having an illicit drug toxicity death since the introduction of Risk Mitigation Guidance prescribing: Toxicology supplement. Retrieved from:

BC Centre for Disease Control. (2023, October 16). Unregulated Drug Poisoning Emergency Dashboard.  


BC Centre on Substance Use. (2019). Heroin compassion clubs: A cooperative model to reduce opioid overdose deaths and disrupt organized crime’s role in fentanyl, money laundering and housing unaffordability. Retrieved from:


BC Centre on Substance Use. (2019). Drug Checking: Operational Technician Manual. Retrieved from:

BC Coroner’s Service Death Review Panel. (2023, November 1). An Urgent Response to a Continuing Crisis.  


BC Coroner Service. (2023, October 20). Unregulated Drug Death Summary.  


Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police. (2020). Decriminalization for Simple Possession of Illicit Drugs: Exploring Impacts on Public Safety & Policing. Retrieved from:

Canadian Drug Policy Coalition. (2022, January 14). Decriminalization done right: A rights-based path for Drug Policy. Retrieved from:


Coyne CJ, Hall AR. (2017). Policy Analysis Four Decades and Counting the Continued Failure of the War on Drugs. Retrieved from:

DeBeck, K., Wood, E., Zhang, R., Buxton, J., Montaner, J., & Kerr, T. (2011). A dose-dependent relationship between exposure to a street-based drug scene and health-related harms among people who use injection drugs. Journal of urban health : bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 88(4), 724–735.


DeBeck, K., Kerr, T., Li, K., Milloy, M. ‐J., Montaner, J., & Wood, E. (2008). Incarceration and drug use patterns among a cohort of injection drug users. Addiction, 104(1), 69–76.  

DeBeck, K., Shannon, K., Wood, E., Li, K., Montaner, J., & Kerr, T. (2007). Income generating activities of people who inject drugs. Drug and alcohol dependence, 91(1), 50–56.

Derrida, J., Hervieu, J.-M. (1989). The Rhetoric of Drugs. An Interview. Autrement. Retrieved from:

Felicella, G., Bonn, M., Johnson, C., Sereda, A. (2020) COVID-19, Substance Use, and Safer Supply: Interim clinical Guidance to Reduce Risk of Infection and Overdose [Webinar] Retrieved from: and

Friedman, J., & Hansen, H. (2022). Far from a “white problem”: Responding to the overdose crisis as a racial justice issue. American Journal of Public Health, 112(S1).  


Gan, W. Q., Kinner, S. A., Nicholls, T. L., Xavier, C. G., Urbanoski, K., Greiner, L., Buxton, J. A., Martin, R. E., McLeod, K. E., Samji, H., Nolan, S., Meilleur, L., Desai, R., Sabeti, S., & Slaunwhite, A. K. (2021). Risk of overdose-related death for people with a history of incarceration. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 116(6), 1460–1471.

Global Commission on Drug Policy. (2021).  Time to End Prohibition. Retrieved from:

Government of Canada. (2023, September 28). Opioid and Stimulant-related Harms in Canada. Retrieved from:  


Government of Canada, Safer supply: Prescribed medications as a safer alternative to toxic illegal drugs (2023). Government of Canada. Retrieved November 8, 2023, from

Grund, J. P., Blanken, P., Adriaans, N. F., Kaplan, C. D., Barendregt, C., & Meeuwsen, M. (1992). Reaching the unreached: targeting hidden IDU populations with clean needles via known user groups. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 24(1), 41–47.


Hajdu, P. (2020, August 24). Letter from the Minister of Health regarding treatment and safer supply. Retrieved from:

Health Canada (2021, August 13). Government of Canada. Retrieved July 4, 2022, from

Human Rights Watch. (2014). The Human Rights Case for Drug Reform: How Drug Criminalization Destroys Lives, Feeds Abuses, and Subverts the Rule of Law. Retrieved from:


Ibrahim, E. (2022, July 12). Feds slow on creating system to source safe supply to reduce overdoses. Retrieved from:  


Ivsins, A., Boyd, J., Mayer, S., Collins, A., Sutherland, C., Kerr, T., & McNeil, R. (2021). "It's Helped Me a Lot, Just Like to Stay Alive": a Qualitative Analysis of Outcomes of a Novel Hydromorphone Tablet Distribution Program in Vancouver, Canada. Journal of urban health: bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 98(1), 59–69.


Ivsins, A., Boyd, J., Mayer, S., Collins, A., Sutherland, C., Kerr, T., & McNeil, R. (2020). Barriers and facilitators to a novel low-barrier hydromorphone distribution program in Vancouver, Canada: a qualitative study. Drug and alcohol dependence, 216, 108202.


Karamouzian, M., Rafat, B., Kolla, G., Urbanoski, K., Atkinson, K., Bardwell, G., Bonn, M., Touesnard, N., Henderson, N., Bowles, J., Boyd, J., Brunelle, C., Eeuwes, J., Fikowski, J., Gomes, T., Guta, A., Hyshka, E., Ivsins, A., Kennedy, M. C., … Werb, D. (2023). Challenges of implementing safer supply programs in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative analysis. International Journal of Drug Policy, 120, 104157.  


Kinner, S. A., Gan, W., & Slaunwhite, A. (2021). Fatal overdoses after release from prison in British Columbia: A Retrospective Data Linkage Study. CMAJ Open, 9(3).  


Kerr, T., Small, W., Johnston, C., Li, K., Montaner, J. S., & Wood, E. (2008). Characteristics of injection drug users who participate in drug dealing: implications for drug policy. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 40(2), 147–152.

Kolla, G., & Strike, C. (2021). Medicalization under prohibition: The tactics and limits of medicalization in the spaces where people use illicit drugs. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 28(2), 127–137.

Laing, M. K., Ti, L., Marmel, A., Tobias, S., Shapiro, A. M., Laing, R., Lysyshyn, M., & Socías, M. E. (2021). An outbreak of novel psychoactive substance benzodiazepines in the unregulated drug supply: Preliminary results from a community drug checking program using point-of-care and confirmatory methods. The International journal on drug policy, 93, 103169.


London Inter Community Health Centre. (2021, November 22). Safer opioid supply program: Preliminary Report. Retrieved from:  

Lopez, K., & Reid, D. (2017, April 13). Discrimination Against Patients With Substance Use Disorders Remains Prevalent And Harmful: The Case For 42 CFR Part 2. Retrieved from:


May, T., Holloway, K., Buhociu, M., & Hills, R. (2020). Not what the doctor ordered: Motivations for nonmedical prescription drug use among people who use illegal drugs. International Journal of Drug Policy, 82, 102823.  


McMurchy, D., & Palmer, R. W. H. (2022, March). Assessment of the Implementation of Safer Supply Pilot Projects. Retrieved from:  


McNeil, R., Small, W., Lampkin, H., Shannon, K., & Kerr, T. (2014). "People knew they could come here to get help": an ethnographic study of assisted injection practices at a peer-run 'unsanctioned' supervised drug consumption room in a Canadian setting. AIDS and behavior, 18(3), 473–485.

Myhill-Jones, B. J. (2021). RE: A safer drug supply: a pragmatic and ethical response to the overdose crisis. Retrieved from:

​National Safer Supply Community of Practice. (2022, September 27). Safer supply: A review of the literature. Retrieved from:  


Olding, M., Ivsins, A., Mayer, S., Betsos, A., Boyd, J., Sutherland, C., Culbertson, C., Kerr, T., & McNeil, R. (2020). A Low-Barrier and Comprehensive Community-Based Harm-Reduction Site in Vancouver, Canada. American journal of public health, 110(6), 833–835.


Rêgo X, Oliveira MJ, Lameira C, Cruz O.S. (2021). 20 years of Portuguese drug policy - developments, challenges and the quest for human rights. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 16(1).  


Savehilaghi, S. (2020). Act now! Decriminalizing drugs in Vancouver. Pivot Legal Society. Retrieved July 4, 2022, from

Savehilaghi, S. (2020, November 19). Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users & Pivot Legal Society Joint Statement. Pivot Legal Society. Retrieved July 4, 2022, from:

Savehilaghi, S. (2021). Vandu and pivot's position on threshold amounts in Vancouver's application to decriminalize. Pivot Legal Society. Retrieved July 4, 2022, from

Small, W., Maher, L., Lawlor, J., Wood, E., Shannon, K., & Kerr, T. (2013). Injection drug users' involvement in drug dealing in the downtown eastside of Vancouver: social organization and systemic violence. The International journal on drug policy, 24(5), 479–487.


Strang, J., Groshkova, T., Uchtenhagen, A., van den Brink, W., Haasen, C., Schechter, M. T., Lintzeris, N., Bell, J., Pirona, A., Oviedo-Joekes, E., Simon, R., & Metrebian, N. (2015). Heroin on trial: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials of diamorphine-prescribing as treatment for refractory heroin addiction†. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science, 207(1), 5–14.


Tardelli, V. S., Bisaga, A., Arcadepani, F. B., Gerra, G., Levin, F. R., & Fidalgo, T. M. (2020). Prescription psychostimulants for the treatment of stimulant use disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychopharmacology, 237(8), 2233–2255.

Taylor JL, Samet JH. Opioid Use Disorder. Ann Intern Med. 2022 Jan; 175(1): ITC1-ITC16.  


Tyndall, M. (2020). A safer drug supply: A pragmatic and ethical response to the overdose crisis. CMAJ, 192(34), E986–E987.

UNAIDS. (2019, March 15). International Guidelines on Human Rights and Drug Policy. Retrieved from:

UN Special Rapporteurs. (2023, June 23). UN experts call for end to global ‘war on drugs’ | ohchr. UN experts call for end to global ‘war on drugs.’ Retrieved from:   


Vancouver Community Action Team , Safe Supply Statement (2019). City of Vancouver. Retrieved November 8, 2023, from  


Wood, E., Kerr, T., Spittal, P. M., Small, W., Tyndall, M. W., O'Shaughnessy, M. V., & Schechter, M. T. (2003). An external evaluation of a peer-run "unsanctioned" syringe exchange program. Journal of urban health: bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 80(3), 455–464.

World Report 2014: Rights trends in the human rights case for drug reform. Human Rights Watch. (2021, September 6). Retrieved July 4, 2022, from

Ye, X., Sutherland, J., Henry, B., Tyndall, M., & Kendall, P. (2018). At-a-glance - Impact of drug overdose-related deaths on life expectancy at birth in British Columbia. Health promotion and chronic disease prevention in Canada : research, policy and practice, 38(6), 248–251.

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